Note: EnhanceFitness (EF) was formerly known as the Lifetime Fitness Program (LFP)

Steinman L, Chadwick K, Chavez Santos E, Sravanam S, Johnson SS, Rensema E, Mayotte C, Denison P, Lorig K Remote Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs to Support U.S. Older Adults during COVID-19 and beyond: A Mixed Methods Outcome Evaluation. JMIR Aging. 04092024:52069

A Step-by-Step Handbook for Implementing EnhanceFitness in Churches. Pearl City, HI: Kupuna Empowerment Working Committee, Pearl City Community Church. 2024.

Dina L Jones, Jennifer L Eicher, Wei Fang, Jennifer M Hootman, Effectiveness and Implementation of an Enhance®Fitness Physical Activity Intervention Specifically in Adults with Arthritis: A RE-AIM Evaluation, The Gerontologist, 2023;, gnad157,

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Midcourse Report:
Implementation Strategies for Older Adults.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2023.

Steinman L, Chavez Santos E, Chadwick K, Mayotte C, Johnson SS, Kohn M, Kelley J, Denison P, Montes C, Spencer-Brown L, Lorig K. Remote Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs During COVID: A National Evaluation of Reach and Implementation for Older Adult Health Equity. Health Promot Pract. 2023 Jun 6:15248399231175843. doi: 10.1177/15248399231175843. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37282506; PMCID: PMC10251066.

Gell, Nancy M., Bai, Yang, Herbert, Melanie, Hoffman, Elise V., Reynolds, Rebecca, Bae, Myeongjin, Dittus, Kim, Phelan, Elizabeth A., & Patel. Kushang V. (2023). Exercise Intensity Among Older Adults Participating From Home in Remotely Delivered EnhanceFitness. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Advance online publication.

Kohn, M. J., Chadwick, K. A., & Steinman, L. E. (2023). Adapting Evidence-Based Falls Prevention Programs for Remote Delivery—Implementation Insights through the RE-AIM Evaluation Framework to Promote Health Equity. Prevention science, 1-11.

Webel A, Sadak T, Belza B, Denison P (2023). At-Home Exercise Programming: Including Voices of People Living With Dementia and Their Care Partners When Designing Interventions (guest editorial). Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 49 (1), 1-3

Gell, N.M., Dittus, K., Caefer, J., Martin, A., Bae, M., Patel, K.V. (2022). Remotely delivered exercise to older rural cancer survivors: a randomized controlled pilot trial. J Cancer Surviv https://doi: 10.1007/s11764-022-01292-y

Patel, K.V., Hoffman, E., Phelan, E., Gell, N. (2022). Remotely Delivered Exercise to Rural Older Adults with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study. ACR Open Rheumatology https://doi: 10.1002/acr2.11452

Gell, N., Hoffman, E., Patel, K. (2021). JMIR Aging – Technology Support Challenges and Recommendations for Adapting an Evidence-Based Exercise Program for Remote Delivery to Older Adults: Exploratory Mixed Methods Study. JMIR Publications

Schrodt, L., Sledge, R., Hergott, C., Rohrer, B., Sidelinker, J., Brach, J., Vincenzo, J., Shirley, K., Shubert, T. (2021). Clinical-Community Connections: Incorporating Evidence-Based Programs for Improved Patient Outcomes. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation • Volume 37, Number 3, 163-167

Moser Mays, A., Kim, S., Rosales, K., Au, T., Rosen,S. (2020). The Leveraging Exercise to Age in Place (LEAP) Study: Engaging Older Adults in Community-Based Exercise Classes to Impact Loneliness and Social Isolation, The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2020, ISSN 1064-7481

Liu, M., Zhang, X., Xiao, J., Ge, F., Tang, S., & Belza, B. (2020). Community readiness assessment for disseminating evidence-based physical activity programs to older adults in Changsha, China: a case for Enhance(R)Fitness. Glob Health Promot, 27(1), 59-67. doi:10.1177/1757975918785144

Tomioka, M., Braun, K.L., Wu, Y.Y., Holt, K., Keele, P., Tsuhako, L., Yago, J. (2019). Twelve-Month Retention in and Impact of Enhance®Fitness on Older Adults in Hawai’i. J Aging Res. 2019 Sep 2;2019:9836181. doi: 10.1155/2019/9836181. PMID: 31565435; PMCID: PMC6745157

Petrescu-Prahova, M., Kohn, M., Leroux, B., Steinman, L., Fishleder, S., Pike, M., Kava, C. M., Belza, B., Schrodt, L., Hannon, P. A., & Harris, J. R. (2019). Building community-clinical linkages to increase older adult physical activity: The PT-REFER trial protocol and participant baseline characteristics. Contemp Clin Trials Commun, 15, 100373. doi:10.1016/j.conctc.2019.100373

Kava, C. M., Fishleder, S., Steinman, L., Petrescu-Prahova, M., Schrodt, L., & Harris, J. R. (2019). Provider-Patient Communication and Involvement in Physical Activity Programs Among Patients Receiving Physical Therapy Services: A Qualitative Study. J Appl Gerontol, 733464819847402. doi:10.1177/0733464819847402

Fishleder, S., Petrescu-Prahova, M., Harris, J. R., Steinman, L., Kohn, M., Bennett, K., & Helfrich, C. D. (2018). Bridging the Gap After Physical Therapy: Clinical-Community Linkages With Older Adult Physical Activity Programs. Innov Aging, 2(1), igy006. doi:10.1093/geroni/igy006

Fishleder, S., Petrescu-Prahova, M., Harris, J. R., Leroux, B., Bennett, K., Helfrich, C. D., Kohn, M., & Hannon, P. (2018). Predictors of Improvement in Physical Function in Older Adults in an Evidence-Based Physical Activity Program (EnhanceFitness). J Geriatr Phys Ther. doi:10.1519/JPT.0000000000000202

Petrescu-Prahova, M. G., Eagen, T. J., Fishleder, S. L., & Belza, B. (2017). Enhance(R)Fitness Dissemination and Implementation: 2010-2015: A Scoping Review. Am J Prev Med, 52(3S3), S295-S299. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2016.08.015

Miyawaki, C. E., Belza, B., Kohn, M. J., & Petrescu-Prahova, M. (2016). Champions of an Older Adult Exercise Program: Believers, Promoters, and Recruiters. J Appl Gerontol. doi:10.1177/0733464816645921

Smith, M. L., Belza, B., Braun, K. L., King, S., Palmer, R. C., Sugihara, N. S., Altpeter, M., Snyder, S., & Ory, M. G. (2015). National reach and dissemination of EnhanceFitness. Health Behavior and Policy Review. doi:10.14485/HBPR.1.2.7

Belza, B., Petrescu-Prahova, Kohn, M., Miyawaki, C., Farren, L., Kline, G., & Heston, A.H. (2015). Adoption of Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives of Early Adopters of Enhance®Fitness in YMCA-Affiliated Sites.  Front. Public Health

Petrescu-Prahova, M., Belza, B., Kohn, M., & Miyawaki, C. (2015). Implementation and Maintenance of a Community-Based Older Adult Physical Activity Program. Gerontologist. doi:10.1093/geront/gnv024

Liu, M., Belza, B., & Zhang, X. (2015). Considerations When Disseminating American-Developed, Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs in China. J Gerontol Nurs, 41(6), 3-4. doi:10.3928/00989134-20150511-01

Kohn, M. J., Belza, B., Petrescu-Prahova, M., Miyawaki, C. E., & Hohman, K. H. (2015). Participant Variation by Delivery Site Type in an Evidence-Based Physical Activity Program. J Aging Phys Act, 23(3), 401-408. doi:10.1123/japa.2013-0252

Kohn, M., Belza, B., Petrescu-Prahova, M., & Miyawaki, C. E. (2015). Beyond Strength: Participant Perspectives on the Benefits of an Older Adult Exercise Program. Health Education & Behavior, 43(3), 305-312. doi:10.1177/1090198115599985

Greenwood-Hickman, M. A., Rosenberg, D. E., Phelan, E. A., & Fitzpatrick, A. L. (2015). Participation in Older Adult Physical Activity Programs and Risk for Falls Requiring Medical Care, Washington State, 2005-2011. Prev Chronic Dis, 12, E90. doi:10.5888/pcd12.140574

Gillette, D. B., Petrescu-Prahova, M. G., Herting, J. R., & Belza, B. L. (2015). A Pilot Study of Determinants of Ongoing Participation in EnhanceFitness: A Community-Based Group Exercise Program for Older Adults. J Geriatr Phys Ther. doi:10.1519/JPT.0000000000000041

Agmon, M., Kelly, V. E., Logsdon, R. G., Nguyen, H., & Belza, B. (2015). The Effects of EnhanceFitness (EF) Training on Dual-Task Walking in Older Adults. J Appl Gerontol, 34(3), NP128-142. doi:10.1177/0733464812465921

Snyder, S. J., Thompson, M., & Denison, P. (2014). EnhanceFitness: A 20-Year Dissemination History. Front Public Health, 2, 270. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2014.00270

Smith, Matthew Lee; Belza, Basia; Braun, Kathryn L.; King, Sherri; Palmer, Richard C.; Sugihara, Naomi S.; Altpeter, Mary; Snyder, Susan; Ory, Marcia G. (2014). National Reach and Dissemination of EnhanceFitness. Health Behavior and Policy Review, Number 2, March 2014, pp. 150-160(11).

Rosenberg, D. E., Grothaus, L., & Arterburn, D. (2014). Characteristics of older adult physical activity program users. Am J Manag Care, 20(7), e245-249.

Page, T. F., Batra, A., Ghouse, M. M., & Palmer, R. C. (2014). Implementation cost analysis of a community-based exercise program for seniors in South Florida. Health Promot Pract, 15(4), 585-591. doi:10.1177/1524839913518221

Kohn, M. J., Belza, B., Petrescu-Prahova, M., Miyawaki, C. E., & Hohman, K. H. (2014). Participant Variation by Delivery Site Type in an Evidence-Based Physical Activity Program. J Aging Phys Act. doi:10.1123/japa.2013-0252

Biedenweg, K., Meischke, H., Bohl, A., Hammerback, K., Williams, B., Poe, P., & Phelan, E. A. (2014). Understanding older adults’ motivators and barriers to participating in organized programs supporting exercise behaviors. J Prim Prev, 35(1), 1-11. doi:10.1007/s10935-013-0331-2

Belza, B., Petrescu-Prahova, M., Kohn, M., Miyawaki, C. E., Farren, L., Kline, G., & Heston, A. H. (2014). Adoption of Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives of Early Adopters of Enhance((R))Fitness in YMCA-Affiliated Sites. Front Public Health, 2, 164. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2014.00164

Report to Congress (2013). The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Evaluation of Community-based Wellness and Prevention Programs under Section 4202 (b) of the Affordable Care Act, September 30, 2013.

Tomioka, M., & Braun, K. L. (2013). Implementing evidence-based programs: a four-step protocol for assuring replication with fidelity. Health Promot Pract, 14(6), 850-858. doi:10.1177/1524839912469205

Snyder, S., & Denison, P. (2013). Building Strong Communities through Evidence-Based Health Improvement Programs. Generations: Journal of the American Society on Aging, 37(4), 77-78(2).

Tomioka, M., Sugihara, N., & Braun, K. L. (2012). Replicating the EnhanceFitness physical activity program in Hawai`i’s multicultural population, 2007-2010. Prev Chronic Dis, 9, E74.

Jones DL, Settipalli S, Goodman JM, Hootman JM, Goins RT. Community readiness for adopting a physical activity program for people with arthritis in West Virginia. Prev Chronic Dis 2012;9:110166.

Sugihara, N., Watanabe, M., Tomioka, M., Braun, K. L., & Pang, L. (2011). Cost-benefit estimates of an elderly exercise program on Kaua’i. Hawaii Med J, 70(6), 116-120.

Smith, M., Lorino, A., Wilson, A., Pollet, C., & Ory, M. (2011). Reaching At-Risk Populations to Improve Clinical Measures of Physical Activity: Delivery of EnhanceFitness to Low-Income African American Adults in Houston, Texas. Texas Public Health Journal, 63(1), 50-53.

Belza, B., Snyder, S., Thompson, M., & LoGerfo, J. (2010). From Research to Practice: EnhanceFitness, an Innovative Community-Based Senior Exercise Program. Topics in Geriatric Medicine, 26(4), 299-309.,_an.3.aspx

Sin, M. K., Choe, M. A., Kim, J., Chae, Y. R., Jeon, M. Y., & Vezeau, T. (2009). Comparison of body composition, handgrip strength, functional capacity, and physical activity in elderly Koreans and Korean immigrants. Res Gerontol Nurs, 2(1), 20-29. doi:10.3928/19404921-20090101-11

Moore-Harrison, T. L., Johnson, M. A., Quinn, M. E., & Cress, M. E. (2009). An evidence-based exercise program implemented in congregate-meal sites. J Phys Act Health, 6(2), 247-251.

Nguyen, H. Q., Maciejewski, M. L., Gao, S., Lin, E., Williams, B., & Logerfo, J. P. (2008). Health care use and costs associated with use a health club membership benefit in older adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care

Nguyen, H. Q., Ackermann, R., Maciejewski, M., Berke, E., Patrick, M., Williams, B., & LoGerfo, J. (2008). Managed-Medicare Health Club Benefit and Reduced Health Care Costs Among Older Adults. Prev Chronic Dis, 5(1). Retrieved from

Frank, J., Coviak, C., Healy, T., Belza, B., & Casado, B. (2008). Addressing fidelity in evidence-based health promotion programs for older adults. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 27(4), 4-34.

Fitts, S., Won, C. W., Williams, B., Snyder, S., Yukawa, M., Legner, V., LoGerfo, J., & Phelan, E. (2008). What is the Optimal Duration of Participation in a Community-Based Health Promotion Program for Older Adults? J Appl Gerontol, 27(2), 201-214.

Chiang, K., Semen, L., Belza, B., & Tsai, J. (2008). “It’s our exercise family”: ethnic older adults’ experiences in a group-based exercise program. Prev Chronic Dis, 5(1).

Ackermann, R. T., Williams, B., Nguyen, H. Q., Berke, E. M., Maciejewski, M. L., & Logerfo, J. P. (2008). Healthcare Cost Differences with Participation in a Community-Based Group Physical Activity Benefit for Medicare Managed Care Health Plan Members. J Am Geriatr Soc, 56, 1459–1465.

Snyder, S., & Belza, B. (2007). Enhancing Healthy Aging. Northwest Public Health, (Fall/Winter) 24(2), 20-21.

Nguyen, H. Q., Ackermann, R. T., Berke, E. M., Cheadle, A., Williams, B., Lin, E., Maciejewski, M. L., & LoGerfo, J. P. (2007). Impact of a managed-Medicare physical activity benefit on health care utilization and costs in older adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 30(1), 43-48.

Belza B, Shumway-­Cook A, Phelan EA, Williams B, Snyder SJ, LoGerfo JP. (2006). The effects of a community based exercise program on function and health in older adults: The EnhanceFitness Program. The Journal of Applied Gerontology. 2006;25(4):291­306.

Walwick, J., Shiu-Thornton, S., Belza, B., Schwartz, S., & LoGerfo, J. (2006). Promoting physical activity in ethnic communities: perspectives from older adults. Journal on Active Aging(Jan/Feb), 28-34.

Berke, E. M., Ackermann, R. T., Lin, E. H., Diehr, P. H., Maciejewski, M. L., Williams, B., Patrick, M. B., & LoGerfo, J. P. (2006). Distance as a barrier to using a fitness-program benefit for managed Medicare enrollees. J Aging Phys Act, 14(3), 313-324.

Snyder, S., & Belza, B. (2005). Eliminating disparities in communities of color through the Lifetime Fitness Program [abstract]. Prev Chronic Dis [serial online]. Retrieved from

Sin, M. K., Belza, B., Logerfo, J., & Cunningham, S. (2005). Evaluation of a community-based exercise program for elderly Korean immigrants. Public Health Nurs, 22(5), 407-413. doi: PHN220505 10.1111/j.0737-1209.2005.220505.x

Sin, M. K., LoGerfo, J., Belza, B., & Cunningham, S. (2004). Factors influencing exercise participation and quality of life among elderly Korean Americans. J Cult Divers, 11(4), 139-145.

Phelan, E. A., Williams, B., Penninx, B. W., LoGerfo, J. P., & Leveille, S. G. (2004). Activities of daily living function and disability in older adults in a randomized trial of the Health Enhancement Program. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 59(8), M838-843.

Belza, B., Walwick, J., Shiu-Thornton, S., Schwartz, S., Taylor, M., & LoGerfo, J. (2004). Older adult perspectives on physical activity and exercise: voices from multiple cultures. Prev Chronic Dis, 1(4), A09.

Phelan, E. A., Cheadle, A., Schwartz, S. J., Snyder, S., Williams, B., Wagner, E. H., & LoGerfo, J. P. (2003). Promoting health and preventing disability in older adults: lessons from intervention studies carried out through an academic-community partnership. Fam Community Health, 26(3), 214-220.

Ackermann, R. T., Cheadle, A., Sandhu, N., Madsen, L., Wagner, E. H., & LoGerfo, J. P. (2003). Community exercise program use and changes in healthcare costs for older adults. Am J Prev Med, 25(3), 232-237.

Phelan, E. A., Williams, B., Leveille, S., Snyder, S., Wagner, E. H., & LoGerfo, J. P. (2002). Outcomes of a community-based dissemination of the health enhancement program. J Am Geriatr Soc, 50(9), 1519-1524.

Cheadle, A., Sullivan, M., Krieger, J., Ciske, S., Shaw, M., Schier, J. K., & Eisinger, A. (2002). Using a participatory approach to provide assistance to community-based organizations: the Seattle Partners Community Research Center. Health Educ Behav, 29(3), 383-394.

Kinne, S., Patrick, D. L., & Maher, E. J. (1999). Correlates of exercise maintenance among people with mobility impairments. Disabil Rehabil, 21(1), 15-22.

Cress, M. E., Buchner, D. M., Questad, K. A., Esselman, P. C., deLateur, B. J., & Schwartz, R. S. (1999). Exercise: effects on physical functional performance in independent older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 54(5), M242-248.

Wallace, J. I., Buchner, D. M., Grothaus, L., Leveille, S., LaCroix, A. Z., & Wagner, E. H. (1998). Implementation and effectiveness of a community-based health promotion program for older adults. Journals of Gerontology, 53A(4), M301-306.

Leveille, S. G., Wagner, E. H., Davis, C., Grothaus, L., Wallace, J., LoGerfo, M., & Kent, D. (1998). Preventing disability and managing chronic illness in frail older adults: a randomized trial of a community-based partnership with primary care. J Am Geriatr Soc, 46(10), 1191-1198.

King, A. C., Rejeski, W. J., & Buchner, D. M. (1998). Physical activity interventions targeting older adults. A critical review and recommendations. Am J Prev Med, 15(4), 316-333.

Cress, M. E., Buchner , D. M., Questad, K. A., & Esselman, P. C. (1997). Exercise training improves physical functional performance in independent older adults. Med Sci Sports Exercise, 29(5), S76.

Buchner, D. M., Nicola, R. M., Martin, M. L., & Patrick, D. L. (1997). Physical activity and health promotion for older adults in public housing. Am J Prev Med, 13(6 Suppl), 57-62.

Belza, B., Patrick, D., Ramsey, S., Maher, E., & Nerri, M. (1997). Will exercise reduce costs and improve quality of life for people with osteoarthritis? Arthritis and Rheumatism, 40(9), S326.

Cress, M. E., Conley, K. E., Schwartz, R. S., Questad, K. A., Esselman, P. C., & Buchner, D. M. (1996). Change in physical function with exercise in older adults. The Gerontologist, 36(1), 28.

Cress, M. E., Conley, K. E., Balding, S. L., Hansen-Smith, F., & Konczak, J. (1996). Functional training: muscle structure, function, and performance in older women. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 24(1), 4-10.

Novais, J., Wagner, E., Buchner, D., LaCroix, A., Patrick, D., Beresford, S., & Omenn, G. (1994). Effects, safety, and compliance with an exercise program in a senior center: A randomized trial. J Am Geriatr Soc.

Grembowski, D., Patrick, D., Diehr, P., Durham, M., Beresford, S., Kay, E., & Hecht, J. (1993). Self-efficacy and health behavior among older adults. J Health Soc Behav, 34(2), 89-104.

Koepsell, T. D., Wagner, E. H., Cheadle, A. C., Patrick, D. L., Martin, D. C., Diehr, P. H., Perrin, E. B., Kristal, A. R., Allan-Andrilla, C. H., & Dey, L. J. (1992). Selected methodological issues in evaluating community-based health promotion and disease prevention programs. Annual review of public health, 13, 31-57.

Elward, K. S., Wagner, E. H., & Larson, E. B. (1992). Participation by sedentary elderly persons in an exercise promotion session. Fam Med, 24(8), 607-612.

Elward, K., Larson, E., & Wagner, E. (1992). Factors associated with regular aerobic exercise in an elderly population. J Am Board Fam Pract, 5(5), 467-474.

Buchner, D. M., Beresford, S. A., Larson, E. B., LaCroix, A. Z., & Wagner, E. H. (1992). Effects of physical activity on health status in older adults. II. Intervention studies. Annual review of public health, 13, 469-488.

Koepsell, T. D., Martin, D. C., Diehr, P. H., Psaty, B. M., Wagner, E. H., Perrin, E. B., & Cheadle, A. (1991). Data analysis and sample size issues in evaluations of community-based health promotion and disease prevention programs: a mixed-model analysis of variance approach. J Clin Epidemiol, 44(7), 701-713.

Buchner, D. M., & Pearson, D. C. (1989). Factors associated with participation in a community senior health promotion program: a pilot study. Am J Public Health, 79(6), 775-777.


EnhanceWellness (EW) was formerly known as the Health Enhancement Program (HEP)

University of Washington’s Department of Rehabilitation Medicine has been actively involved in adapting and evaluating the EnhanceWellness health coaching program for people with long-term physical disabilities. This evaluation work has included a pilot trial of 119 individuals funded by the National Institute of Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR; 90RT5023-01-00; 2015-2019) as well as an ongoing randomized controlled trial of 600 individuals, funded through the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR; 1R01NR016942-01A1; 2018-2023).

Adaptation methods and preliminary results from this pilot work have been presented at several national conferences (below), and results are currently being prepared for scientific publication:

Molton, I.R. (2017). Innovation in health care delivery for adults aging with disabilities. [Symposium presentation]. IAGG World Congress of Gerontology and Geriatrics, San Francisco, CA

Molton, I. (2016). Translating a wellness promotion intervention for individuals aging with physical disabilities: state of the science and next steps [Webinar]. In Translating Evidence-Based Practices to Community Settings for People Aging with Disabilities and their Caregivers: Gaps and Opportunities. Administration for Community Living, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Molton, I. (2016). Increasing access to evidence-based health promotion interventions for people with physical disabilities: A case study using adaptation as a translational research approach [Webinar]. In Utilizing Translational Research Strategies to Increase Evidence-Based Practices for Individuals with Disabilities in Community Settings – Opportunities and Challenges. Administration for Community Living, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Molton, I., Smith, A.E., Lauer, C. & Denison, P. (2015). Adapting an evidence-based wellness program for older adults with long-term physical disabilities [Paper presentation]. American Society on Aging: Aging in America Conference, Chicago, IL.

Ongoing RCT:  NINR 1R01NR016942 the primary completion date for this grant is March 31st, 2023, and the PI intends to analyze and publish data in the summer of 2023.

Cheadle, A. Final Evaluation Report: United Way Strengthening our Communities Project. (September 2015) Center for Community Health and Evaluation.

Hughes SL, Seymour RB, Campbell RT, Shaw JW, Fabiyi C, Sokas R. Comparison of two health-promotion programs for older workers. Am J Public Health. 2011 May;101(5):883-90. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2010.300082. Epub 2011 Mar 18. PMID: 21421955; PMCID: PMC3076396.

Leveille SG, et al. (1998). Preventing disability and managing chronic illness in frail older adults: A randomized trial of a community-based partnership with primary care. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 46:1-9.

Phelan EA, Williams B, Snyder SJ, Sizer Fitts S, LoGerfo JP. (2006). A five state dissemination of a community-based disability prevention program for older adults. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 1(3): 267-74.

Health Mentor Program (part of EnhanceWellness program)

Davis C, et al. (1998). The use of volunteers in a community-based health promotion and chronic illness self-management program for the elderly. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, October, 16-23. URL: